Nguyên âm trong American English

Post này em trả lời cho anh Tuyến như lời hứa :-) Hôm nay em vào phòng lab “ngâm cứu” một tí và chép từ sách ra tất cả các nguyên âm của tiếng Anh Mĩ và các ví dụ. Bài này sẽ được update thêm sau :-)

Về tương ứng tiếng Việt của các nguyên âm em sẽ cố gắng giải thích, nếu có gì sai sót xin mọi người góp ý.

Danh sách tất cả các nguyên âm:

/iy/ hay /i:/ as in see (i kéo dài)

/I/ hay /i/ as in sit (i ngắn, nghe giống nửa i nửa ơ)

/ey/ as in pay (đọc giống giống ây)

/e/ as in met (đọc giống e trong tiếng Việt)

/ae/ (em không tìm được symbol của nó) as in cat (đọc nửa giống a nửa giống e, cằm hạ thấp, lưỡi hạ thấp)

/a/ as in not (đọc nửa giống a nửa giống ơ)

/ay/ as in buy (đọc giống ai)

/aw/ as in now (đọc giống ao)

/&/ as in up (đọc giống ơ)

/&r/ as in sir (đọc là ơ rồi r)

/oy/ as in boy (đọc giống oi)

/o/ as in all (đọc giống o?)

/ow/ as in no

/uw/ as in do

/u/ as in book

Các từ cùng nguyên âm:

/ey/ : pay, eight, say, hate, day

/e/ : met, egg, guess, neck, red

/ae/ : sad, and, man, gas, add

/a/ : ah, occupy, calm, hot, college, not, stop, object, odd, obligated, blond, opportunity, got, dot, obvious,… (nhiều từ này mình hay đọc nhầm là ‘o’ thay vì ‘a’ lắm)

/ay/ : buy, ice, eye, guide, mine, rhyme

/aw/: now, out, town, vowel, how, cow, doubt /dawt/

/&/ : up, umpire, Sunday, blood, trouble, about, banana, precious, coma

/o/ : all, also, halt, organ, awful, cost, wrong, pause, thought, law, ought, saw

/oy/ : oil, oyster, coin, soil, royal, enjoy, toy, employment

/ow/: no, oh, open, home, boat, soul, sew, cargo

/uw/: do, thought, whose, juice, too, shoe, true

/u/ : book, butcher, cook, sugar, wolf, would

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7 Responses

  1. You should indicate which system you’re following here. Different dictionaries use different notations. :-(
    Beginning learners should stick to one.

  2. The above is the system in my speaking book, with one exception the /ae/ for which I can’t find the notation. For each dictionary one can try to find the correspondence by looking up some words :-D

    Anyway, thank you for your comment :-) I will update my post graaadually :-D . BTW, do you know how to “type” the conventional phonetic notations that are used in most dictionary? (Oxford Advanced Learner for instance)

  3. Yeah, it looks like you’re using the American phonetics symbols. In Vietnam, we are more familiar with the international phonetics symbols (British one, I suppose). I suggest Anh Bui have 2 columns, one shows the British, the other shows the American. I myself tried to use the American and stayed away from the British for a while but it was so hard. I think the British one kind of gets absorded in our blood. :d
    Sorry Minh Anh. I create more work for you.

  4. Cảm ơn Minh Anh vì đã trả lời chi tiết và hữu ích.

    Khi nào em rảnh thì viết thêm hướng dẫn về cách đọc các phụ âm được không? Nhất là mấy phụ âm kép như là

    Cảm ơn em nhiều.

    Em dùng mấy kí hiệu trong trang web của Iowa được không?

    À, trong trang web dạy phát âm của ĐH Iowa anh thấy chữ |u| trong foot nó đọc giống như là ơ không biết đúng không?

  5. I copied the pronunciation symbols from the merriam-webster online dictionary:

    \&\ as a and u in abut
    \&\ as e in kitten
    \&r\ as ur/er in further
    \a\ as a in ash
    \A\ as a in ace
    \ä\ as o in mop
    \au\ as ou in out
    \ch\ as ch in chin
    \e\ as e in bet
    \E\ as ea in easy
    \g\ as g in go
    \i\ as i in hit
    \I\ as i in ice
    \j\ as j in job
    \[ng]\ as ng in sing
    \O\ as o in go \o\ as aw in law
    \oi\ as oy in boy
    \th\ as th in thin
    \th\ as th in the
    \ü\ as oo in loot
    \u\ as oo in foot
    \y\ as y in yet
    \zh\ as si in vision
    For more information see the Guide To Pronunciation

    Ignore them if you get confused!

    What MinhAnh posted is similar to this, but not quite :-)

    MinhAnh: I will not dare type the international phonetic symbols. You can try with some mathematical natation though, for instance, \varepsilon :-)
    I also found this page:

  6. first of all, you have to be able to tell the difference between IPS and American phonetic symbols. Then you must know how to “sound” a word correctly. And that’s just the beginning. You also should know how to articulate a complete sentence in a natural manner. An last but not least, how could you express yourself in English in certain situations, which is probably the most important aspect?

  7. oh all of you speak english so good. i’m very bad at english. i’ll have an exam about the “phonetic english”. i don’t know how to learn it throughly. hic
    the content you gave above is very useful. can you advice me more imformation about my problem. thank you so much. moa!!!!

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